Another place to seek information is directly from the developers of the biopesticide products. The Biopesticide Industry Alliance, found at www.biopesticideindustryalliance.org, is a good source of company information. One biopesticide developer, Marrone Bio Innovations (MBI) of Davis, California, states its purpose is “to discover, develop and market effective and environmentally responsible natural products that focus on unmet needs for weed, pest and plant disease management.” Product development is based on sound science, statistically evaluated data, market research, direct contact with customers and good financial analysis.
A Biofungicide: Regalia®
Regalia protects food and ornamental crops from both fungal and bacterial disease. Regalia has an unique mode of action that induces systemic resistance and switches on the natural defense mechanisms of plants. Regalia inhibits the development of major economic diseases, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, botrytis gray mold, bacterial leaf spot, greasy spot, target spot, brown rot, gummy stem blight, walnut blight, citrus canker, anthracnose, mummy berry, and others.
Regalia is a patented formulation of an extract from the giant knotweed plant (Reynoutria sachalinensis). Research shows that plants treated with Regalia produce and accumulate elevated levels of specialized proteins and other compounds known to greatly inhibit disease development. For example, Regalia will cause a plant to produce more phenolic and pathogenesis-related (PR) protein compounds which are known to fight pathogens that infect plants. Additionally, Regalia causes an increase in the production of phytoalexins, the ‘antibiotics’ produced by a plant under attack, which act as toxins to the attacking organism.
Incorporating Regalia into existing fungal and bacterial control programs provides a novel mode of action to aid in the prevention of resistance to any singular active ingredient. Regalia can be used in rotation or as a tank mix partner with most commercially available fungicides.
When applied to actively growing plants, Regalia makes the treated leaf area resistant to certain plant diseases. It also results in greener, healthier, more vigorous plants. Regalia is labeled for use on many food and ornamental crops including: tomatoes, peppers, leafy greens, cucurbits, grapes, strawberries, blueberries, walnuts, citrus, and others.
According to the label, Regalia is recommended for use as a preventative treatment and should be applied prior to disease infestation to protect the growing leaf tissue. For ground applications, the general use rate is as follows (see application rates for selected crops for additional details):
- When used alone, apply at the rate of 2-4 quarts of Regalia (0.5-1.0 % v/v) in 50 to 100 gallons of water per acre.
- When used in a tank mix or rotational program with other fungicides, apply at the rate of 1-4 quarts of Regalia in 50 to 100 gallons of water per acre.
- Use higher water volumes with larger sized crops and extensive foliage to secure thorough coverage.
- Regalia has a re-entry interval (REI) of 4 hours and a pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 0 days.
This MBI product is a micro-emulsion concentrate consisting of liquid and solid portions of the plant extract of Giant Knotweed. Both portions are important for the induction of resistance in treated leaf tissue. Some of these ingredients may settle out after standing for an extended time, therefore, the product should be shaken prior to use.
For spraying applications, use 50-mesh nozzle screens or larger. Only the treated green tissues of plants are amenable to induced resistance, therefore coverage of foliage is important. Larger sized crops and foliage need larger volumes in order to secure thorough coverage.
Keep the agitators running if mechanical mixing is available when preparing the spray solution, Regalia can be tank mixed in the spray tank with other pesticides to enhance disease control. Regalia cannot be mixed with another product that has a prohibition against mixing. Use of the tank mix must be in accordance with the more restrictive label limitations and precautions.
Do not combine Regalia with pesticides, adjuvants, or fertilizers if there has been no previous experience or use of the combination to show it is physically compatible, effective, and non-injurious under use conditions. Regalia is compatible with many commonly used pesticides, fertilizers, adjuvants and surfactants but has not been evaluated with all potential combinations. To ensure compatibility of the tank mix combinations, evaluate prior to use, as follows: Using a suitable container add the proportional amounts of product to water. Add wettable powders first, then water dispersible granules, then liquid flowables, then emulsifiable concentrates. Mix thoroughly and let stand for at least five minutes. If the combination stays mixed or can be remixed, it is physically compatible. Test the mix on a small portion of the crop to be treated to ensure that a phytotoxic response will not occur as a result of the application.
Use on Edible Crops
Regalia used as specified will induce the natural defense system of treated plants and help prevent crop loss and reduced crop quality caused by disease.
Use Regalia on grapes as an early-season and mid-season treatment against powdery mildew (Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). Regalia has a 0 day pre-harvest interval (PHI) and is an effective late-season treatment against botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). The unique mode of action of Regalia, makes the product an important addition to pesticide resistance management programs. Regalia is a flexible program partner that is compatible with most plant protection products, and can be used in rotation or as a tank mix partner with most commercially available fungicides.
For maximum disease control, begin preventative applications when the first disease symptoms are visible. Repeat applications at berry growth and pre-harvest, depending on disease infestation level and environmental conditions. Additional treatments are recommended depending on crop growth and disease pressure. Repeat at 7 to 14 day intervals, depending on disease pressure. If using Regalia as a standalone treatment, repeat at 7 to 10 day intervals.
Regalia offers walnut growers an effective tool to prevent devastating crop loss caused by walnut blight. Copper resistance has been found in walnut orchards in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. Adding Regalia to copper improves control of walnut blight. When treated with Regalia, the defense system of walnut trees is triggered to defend against attacking diseases. This effective and unique mode of action makes Regalia an important tool, both for controlling walnut blight, and for managing resistance to copper in control programs. Regalia is rainfast in one hour.
For best results, use Regalia as a preventative treatment tank mixed with a labeled rate of copper fungicide. For maximum walnut blight control, begin applications as soon as there is susceptible leaf tissue present. Apply when 40 percent of the buds are at the “prayer” stage, and then at 7 to 10 day intervals to protect new shoots. Additional treatments are recommended depending on weather and disease pressure.
Use Regalia on leafy vegetable crops including lettuce, spinach, and others to control downy mildew (Bremia lactucae, peronospora spp.) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum). Apply Regalia preventatively and repeat applications at 7 to 14 day intervals. Regalia has a re-entry interval of 4 hours, and a pre-harvest interval of 0 days. Additionally, Regalia is exempt from tolerance requirements in or on all food commoditities by the United States EPA.
Regalia can be used on cucurbits such as cantaloupe, muskmelon, watermelon, cucumber, pumpkin, and squash (including zucchini) to prevent powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuligines, Erysiphe cichoracerum), downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis), and gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae). Apply Regalia preventatively when the first disease symptoms are visible. Repeat applications in 7 to 14 day intervals depending upon crop growth and disease pressure. When greenhouse cucurbits are under high disease conditions, use the shorter spray interval. Under high disease pressure, use Regalia in a tank mix or rotational program with another fungicide. Regalia has been shown to synergize certain classes of fungicides, including demethylation inhibitors (DMIs), for superior control of powdery mildew. Regalia has a re-entry interval of 4 hours and a 0 day pre-harvest interval.
To control mummy berry (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi) on blueberries, initiate application at bud break stage of development. Apply Regalia preventatively at 7 to10 day intervals or as needed. For best performance, tank mix Regalia with other fungicides registered for mummy berry control. To control powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca spp.) and suppress anthracnose on strawberries, apply Regalia in 50 to 100 gallons of water per acre at 7 to 14 day spray intervals as soon as first symptoms of disease appear. For best performance, tank mix Regalia with another registered fungicide
Regalia is labeled to control the following bacterial and fungal diseases on tomatoes and peppers: powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca spp., Leveillula taurica, and Erysiphe spp.), bacterial blight (Xanthomonas spp.), bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas spp.), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae), target spot (Corynespora cassiicola), gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) and early blight of tomato (Alternaria solani). Apply Regalia preventatively in 50 to 100 gallons of water per acre. Repeat applications at 7 to 10 day intervals. Tank mix Regalia with other registered fungicides for improved disease control under heavy pressure.
Use Regalia on citrus such as orange, grapefruit, lemon, tangerine, tangelo, and pummelo to control bacterial canker (Xanthomonas spp.) and greasy spot (Mycosphaerella citri). Apply Regalia preventatively in 50 to 100 gallons of water. For improved performance use Regalia in a tank mix or rotational program with other registered fungicides. Repeat applications at 7 to 14 day intervals.
Use on Ornamental Plants
The following plant species have been treated with Regalia, either for the purpose of rendering them more vigorous or to prevent disease: begonia, lisianthus, salvia, crape myrtle, petunia, snapdragon, freesia, poinsettia, zinnia, gerbera, and rose. The disease most prominently controlled is powdery mildew (Oidium spp.), but Regalia can also be used for treatment against gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and rust (Puccinia antirrhini). Additional diseases controlled by Regalia include black spot of rose (Diplocarpon rosae), leaf spots (Alternaria spp., Cercospora spp., Entomosporium spp., Myrothecium spp.,Septoria spp.), scab (Venturia spp.), and anthracnose (Collectotrichum spp.).
Begin applications preventatively (before disease symptoms become visible) at the 4 to 6 leaf stage and treat at 7 to 14 day intervals as needed prior to sale or harvest. Spray until just before point of runoff. Since it is not possible to test all ornamental species or varieties grown in the greenhouse, it is recommended that Regalia be tested on a few plants prior to large-scale usage. Do not use on gerbera and lisianthus plugs. Wait for two weeks after transplanting before use.
Regalia is compatible with multi-site, contact fungicides such as copper hydroxide; multi-site dithiocarbamates such as maneb and mancozeb; stobilurins such as pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin; demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) such as myclobutanil and triflumizole; and other classes of pesticide chemistry. If compatibility with another product is unknown, a jar test should be conducted.
The use of Regalia with conventional fungicides in an integrated disease management program has proven to be very satisfactory. One of the major objectives has been to reduce the probability of disease resistance development to a particular active ingredient. The alternate use of Regalia (one to two sprays) followed by one to two sprays of a conventional, registered fungicide has been successfully used in many crops. In addition, the uses of tank mixes with a conventional fungicide have been successful. Follow label instructions of the particular registered product, not to exceed amounts or treatment intervals as recommended on the label.
The Regalia label lists the following limitations, and storage and disposal requirements:
- Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or disposal.
- Store in a cool, dry place. Avoid freezing.
- Applicators and other handlers must wear long-sleeved shirt and long pants; shoes and socks; waterproof gloves; and protective eyewear.